HOW DO I IMMIGRATE TO CANADA AS A WORKER?

 

Canada is one of the most requested countries in terms of immigration, for several reasons: high-quality education, universal health, employment opportunities, cultural and religious diversity… 

As a worker and depending on your current situation, you have different opportunities to immigrate to Canada.[1]
Thus, in this article, we will come back point by point on the different opportunities that are available to you as a worker.[2]

We will first study immigration programs at the federal level, namely Express Entry, the program dedicated to the self-employed and the start-up visa program. These programs will allow you to immigrate to all provinces except Quebec (I).

Next, we will discuss the programs created for young people, namely the Working Holiday Permit and the Young Professionals Permit, which make it easier than other programs to immigrate from anywhere in Canada, including Quebec (II).

Finally, the programs specific to the province of Quebec, namely the Quebec program for permanent workers, temporary workers and business people (III), will be apprehended.

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FOCUS ON THE TAX TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE & THE EMIRATES – ITS IMPACT ON INDIVIDUAL UAE RESIDENTS

The taxation agreement between the French government and the Government of the United Arab Emirates was signed on July 19, 1989 and was amended in 1993 to include today also a multilateral treaty to prevent base erosion since the entry into force on January1, 2019 (the “Convention”).

  

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CRYPTOCURRENCY AND TAXATION – COMPARATIVE STUDY FRANCE, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES & CANADA

Cryptocurrencies appeared in the digital world a decade ago and are now experiencing significant growth and democratization. 

As virtual means of payment that can be used mainly on the Internet, relying on cryptography to secure transactions and the creation of units, and escaping any control from regulators and central banks exists today more, there are today more than 4000 crypto-currencies in circulation. 

Nevertheless, their legal framework is sometimes confusing and difficult to understand. This article will thus aim to study the legislative framework of cryptocurrencies in France, Canada and the United Arab Emirates, but also their tax regime. We will then examine, in a non-exhaustive way, the Initial Coins Offerings, a new phenomenon of fundraising based on cryptocurrencies. 

What are cryptos in practice ? 

A cryptocurrency is a virtual means of payment that relies on cryptography to secure transactions and the creation of units, and that is beyond the control of regulators and central banks. Cryptocurrencies are therefore based on a computer protocol of encrypted and decentralized transactions, called blockchain. 

The best known cryptocurrency is bitcoin, which is a virtual unit of account stored on electronic media. Nevertheless, today there are more than 4000 cryptocurrencies in circulation in the world, the best known outside of bitcoin being for example Ethereum, Ripple or EOS, XRP, Tether, Cardan, Stellar, Chainlink, Uniswap, Polkado or USD Coin.

Cryptocurrencies are part of the broader framework of cryopoassets,which represent “virtual assets stored on an electronic medium allowing a community of users accepting them in payment to carry out transactions without having to resort to legal tender”. 


The issuance and circulation of digital cryptoassets is particularly related to Initial Coins Offerings(“ICOs”). Unlike a stock exchange issue (IPO), the ICO is financed on digital media called tokens. The ICO thus represents a fundraising operation operating through the issuance of digital assets exchangeable for cryptocurrencies during the start-up phase of a start-up or a business project. 

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FOCUS ON THE TAX TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE AND CANADA & ITS IMPACTS FOR FRENCH INDIVIDUALS RESIDING IN CANADA

The Tax Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income between the Government of France and the Government of Canada was signed on 2 May 1975 and amended in 1987, 1995 and 2010 (the "Convention"). [1] 

The objectives of this Convention are manifold.First, the two countries want to promote their economic relations and cooperation in tax matters.In addition, they wish to eliminate double taxation in respect of certain taxes expressly covered by the Convention.

However, the Convention has provided a safeguard: the set-up or strategies put in place by taxpayers, whether natural or legal persons, must not have the sole purpose of obtaining tax relief provided for by the Convention.

The French and Canadian taxes concerned by the Convention are limited to:

  • income tax, including in the case of a sale of immovable property;
  • corporate tax registered in France or Canada; and
  • tax on transfer duties free of charge (only in the case of France).

This article will help you better understand the tax impacts of your income between the two countries if you are an individual. If you are a company, we have also written an article to guide you. 

 

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