By introducing a corporate tax, the United Arab Emirates (UAE)/Dubai reaffirmed its commitment to international standards of tax transparency and the prevention of harmful tax practices.

This corporate tax, which came into force on June 1, 2023, is governed by Federal Decree-Law No. 47 of 2022 on the Taxation of Corporations and Businesses (https://mof.gov.ae/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/Federal-Decree-Law-No.-47-of-2022-EN.pdf), (“Federal Decree-Law No. 47 of 2022“).

Taxable companies will now have to register for corporate tax (https://tax.gov.ae/en/services/corporate.tax.registration.aspx) and obtain a corporate tax registration number from the Federal Tax Authority, which is the competent authority for corporate tax matters.

The corporate tax return must be filed for each tax period within 9 months of the end of the tax period.

As regards the rate applicable to this new tax, taxable income over 375 000 AED will be taxed at a rate of 9%, while income below this threshold will be taxed at a rate of 0% (Article 3 of the law).

On reading this Federal Decree-Law No. 47 of 2022 (1.), we understand that its scope is quite wide without being absolute, which will have the effect of subjecting a certain number of people to the tax (1.a), while providing for exemptions under some conditions (1.b).

Furthermore, although taxable income (2.) is numerous, due to the duality of the criteria for determining such income(2.a), Federal Decree-Law No. 47 of 2022 provides for the deductibility of some expenses, which will have the effect of reducing taxation (2.b).

1.Scope of application of Federal Decree-law No. 47 of 2022

Although the law applies to a wide range of individuals and companies (a), its scope is not absolute, as exemptions are provided (b).



Cryptocurrencies appeared in the digital world a decade ago and are now experiencing significant growth and democratization. 

As virtual means of payment that can be used mainly on the Internet, relying on cryptography to secure transactions and the creation of units, and escaping any control from regulators and central banks exists today more, there are today more than 4000 crypto-currencies in circulation. 

Nevertheless, their legal framework is sometimes confusing and difficult to understand. This article will thus aim to study the legislative framework of cryptocurrencies in France, Canada and the United Arab Emirates, but also their tax regime. We will then examine, in a non-exhaustive way, the Initial Coins Offerings, a new phenomenon of fundraising based on cryptocurrencies. 

What are cryptos in practice ? 

A cryptocurrency is a virtual means of payment that relies on cryptography to secure transactions and the creation of units, and that is beyond the control of regulators and central banks. Cryptocurrencies are therefore based on a computer protocol of encrypted and decentralized transactions, called blockchain. 

The best known cryptocurrency is bitcoin, which is a virtual unit of account stored on electronic media. Nevertheless, today there are more than 4000 cryptocurrencies in circulation in the world, the best known outside of bitcoin being for example Ethereum, Ripple or EOS, XRP, Tether, Cardan, Stellar, Chainlink, Uniswap, Polkado or USD Coin.

Cryptocurrencies are part of the broader framework of cryopoassets,which represent “virtual assets stored on an electronic medium allowing a community of users accepting them in payment to carry out transactions without having to resort to legal tender”. 

The issuance and circulation of digital cryptoassets is particularly related to Initial Coins Offerings(“ICOs”). Unlike a stock exchange issue (IPO), the ICO is financed on digital media called tokens. The ICO thus represents a fundraising operation operating through the issuance of digital assets exchangeable for cryptocurrencies during the start-up phase of a start-up or a business project. 

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